Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Great Depression Of America - 980 Words

America has been around for many years and during those years people of America have experienced horrible times and fantastic times. There were the world wars, and there were the roaring twenties when America was the fastest growing. After the roaring twenties the American economy took a turn for the worse. After such a prosperous decade, when America went into the depression people were not ready for such a drastic change. Many people didn’t understand how it occurred, but now we have a better understanding of what happened. Imagine coming off of the highest times in life; Broadway shows every night, everyone dressed up in suits and dresses, everything going great and within a day all of that changes for the worst. One October day the stock market crashed which sent the American economy into turmoil. In fact, it was one of the major causes that led to the Great Depression. Two months after the original crash in October, stockholders had lost more than $40 billion dollars. Eve n though the stock market began to regain some of its losses, by the end of 1930, it just was not enough and America truly entered what is called the Great Depression (Kelly. M). After the crash the American economy was trying to climb back up to what it had once been, but it couldn’t because of the hardships it had endured. People often put all the blame on the president that was in office when the great depression occurred. President Hoover has become somewhat notorious for trying too hard to stopShow MoreRelatedThe Great Depression Of America920 Words   |  4 PagesThe Great Depression A major event in American history that has shaped society today is the great depression that began in 1929 and ended in 1939. The official day the stock market crashed was a a day known as â€Å"black Tuesday†. At the time, the American government was not prepared nor did they have policies in place that made them well prepared for such an event to take place. This unfortunate event threw Americans into a an economic crisis unlike any event experienced before in history and leftRead MoreThe Great Depression Of America1727 Words   |  7 PagesThe Great Depression in America is often believed to have ended when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbour and the US entered WWII in December 1941. However, while an exact end date is a matter of debate, it’s obvious the end of the Great Depression correlates somewhat with the beginning of the war, leading many to believe WWII must have ended the Great Depression and triggered the economic recovery of the United States. Many histo rians believe that the government and military spending restimulatedRead MoreAmerica in the Great Depression1370 Words   |  5 Pagesdecade, from 1929 to 1940, America’s economy failed to operate at a level that allowed most Americans to attain economic success. A worldwide depression struck countries with market economies at the end of the 1920s. Although the Great Depression was relatively mild in some countries, it was severe in others, especially in the United States. The Great Depression left the American economy in ruins with problems that would take decades to fix. Government involvement increased in an effort to reconstructRead MoreThe Great Depression Of America3487 Words   |  14 Pages The Great Depression If one asks most Americans their opinion about when our nations’ economy crashed the most severely, they would most likely say the period between October 1929, until 1930 when the United States went through the great depression. The great depression was a time where people lost nearly everything, from houses and farms, to families and children. People were starving and left out in the cold. The worst part about this was that once people lost their belongings, they were goneRead MoreThe Great Depression of America514 Words   |  2 Pagesmill in Gary several other factories and companies started to travel to Gary for products because it became a business that lasted for decades. There was great memories in the 1920s with the great depression that had eventually changed in the 1930s. There were a crash of the stock market that was drawn in 1929 with the Great Depression of America. The American had no choice but to share unemployment and poverty. Then there was a decrease in the agriculture market which had a distress effect on theRead MoreThe Great Depression Changed America845 Words   |  4 PagesEssay The Great Depression changed our whole society but not in a bad way. The drop of the stock market gave buyers two choices; work harder to earn their money back or give up. After families lost most of their money they gave up and couldn’t provide for themselves. The Great Depression has majorly affected our current world. The Great Depression had shown how big companies affected America, how much the Executive branches power had grown and how the bank could not always be trusted. The Great DepressionRead MoreThe Great Depression Trademarks America1544 Words   |  7 Pages The Great Depression trademarks America at its all-time historical down point. In FDR’s Folly, Powell spotlights the presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, astronomical levels of unemployment, as well as the New Deal program developed to combat the Great Depression. Powell, who was born and educated in London, earned a master’s degree in history and he clearly demonstrates his views to the reader. In his words, FDR’s presidency did not aid the economic state but drove it further back as well asRead MoreThe Great Depression And Its Effects On America2001 Words   |  9 PagesThe Great Depression was an incredibly dull time in the historical backdrop of the United States, impacting all the financial assets of the American lifestyle. The Great Depression shattered the financial status of the United States. President Roosevelt has been known for sparing the U.S out of the financial turmoil it found itself in from the Great Depression. The causative components of t he Great Depression are still up for debate by many students of history and economics. For some individualsRead More The Great Depression in America Essay2388 Words   |  10 Pages nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The Great Depression was a huge economic downfall in North America and involved many other industrialized countries of the world. The Depression began in 1929 and lasted for about ten years. Millions of people lost their jobs along with many businesses going bankrupt. The common misconception of the Great Depression is people think that the stock market crash was the main cause for it. There were many causes for the Depression; unequal distribution of money during theRead MoreEssay on America and the Great Depression1882 Words   |  8 PagesAmerica and the Great Depression 1. Compare the ideas behind the protest movements of Huey Long and Upton Sinclair. The Era of the Great Depression was one of both desperation and hope. Americans were desperate for a change, desperate for anything to come along that may improve their situation, yet hopeful that the light at the end of the tunnel was near. For many of those living in poverty during the 1930s, the â€Å"radical† leftist movements seen throughout the country appeared to be alternatives

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on the Dynamic Relationship of Macbeth and Lady...

Dynamic Relationship of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth An important factor in Shakespeare’s tragic play, Macbeth is the changing relationship between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth throughout the play. At the beginning of the play, Lady Macbeth is the dominant character in the relationship. As the play progresses the roles seem to reverse and Macbeth becomes the more dominant of the two. We can gain insight into the changing relationship by looking at the interaction of the couple. The first time in the play where we can make reference about their relationship and their individual personalities in the relationship is in Act 1, Scene 5, where we first meet Lady Macbeth. She is seen alone reading a letter out loud, which Macbeth has written†¦show more content†¦She is also a bit lazy and wants the power but not if someone can do it for her, and also I think that deep down she doesn’t possess enough evil to kill Duncan herself and can’t physically bring herself to stab him, ‘Had he not resembled My father as he slept, I had done’t.’ Lady Macbeth didn’t give in and ended up convincing Macbeth after a little effort, it didn’t take much convincing because the thoughts were already in his head and she just had to make him overcome his fears that lay in his conscience. Lady Macbeth uses various methods to persuade him. She hits at everything which he cares about. She says he’s a coward and not a real man and this makes him angry as he is a good soldier and has killed many people before. She also says to him, ‘When you durst do it, then you were a man’ this is when she questions his masculinity. She even says that she’d kill their own child. ‘I would, while it was smiling in my face, Have plucked from my nipple from his boneless gums And dashed the brains out, had I so sworn As you have done to this’. This is saying that if she had promised to do something like he did she would have killed their child instead of breaking her promise. I think she said this because she wanted to show him how much she would give up to become queen and how beingShow MoreRelatedMacbeth Comparative Essay1150 Words   |  5 PagesThe Power Couple Macbeth Comparative Essay Word Count: 1147 In Western culture today, it is a widely accepted fact that men and women have equal power in a marriage; whereas in Elizabethan times, a woman was dominated by her husband and she would have very little control over her life. The leading omnipotent couple in William Shakespeare’s Macbeth have a compelling marriage with a power dynamic that is beyond the boundaries set by society at the time in which he wrote the play. The directorsRead More Supernatural in Shakespeares Macbeth - Purpose of the Witches940 Words   |  4 PagesThe Purpose of the Witches in Macbeth  Ã‚      One purpose for having the witches in Shakespeares play,   Macbeth, is to make a comparison between Macbeths conscious world and Macbeths unconscious, dream world. In this essay, I will touch upon Sigmund Freuds theories of dreams and the unconscious, and consider the nature of the witches and their relationship with Macbeth. I will also explore the relationship between witches and society, and conclude the essay by considering other roles of theRead MoreComparison Between Lady Macbeth And The Wife Of Bath1544 Words   |  7 PagesAmbition is a key theme in both William Shakespeare’s Macbeth and Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Wife of Bath. This essay will focus on the contrast in ambitions between Lady Macbeth and The Wife of Bath. I will argue that whereas Lady Macbeth’s uncertain ambition that stems from her preoccupation with her maternal qualities – and her apparent inabilities to bear children, the Wife of Bath is liberated and appears to relish her status as an independent woman unconcerned with child bearing, ‘a mother’s uniqueRead MoreThe Use of Language, Stagecraft and Structure to Illustrate the Demise of Lady Macbeth2484 Words   |  10 Pagesof Lady Macbeth, it is crucial to compare various scenes beginning with Act 1 Scene 5 and ending with Act 5 Scene 1. It is going to examine, using language, stagecraft and structure, how in the beginning of the play Lady Macbeth is manipulative and dominant over Macbeth, but towards the end of the play, the roles have reversed and Lady Macbeth is needed less and less. Towards the closing scenes, Macbeth becomes totally independent in his actions and decisions, in stark contrast, Lady Macbeth becomesRead Moreshakespeare influences16068 Words   |  65 PagesQUESTION 5. SIGNIFICANCE AND RATIONALE 6. ANALYSIS 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. ABSTRACT This thesis analysis the textual and symbolic similarities between Shakespeare s tragedies Macbeth and Hamlet and William Faulkner s the sound and the furry and Absalom, Absalom!. Faulkner absorbed essential characteristics of Shakespearean tragedies and utilized them consciously and unconsciously in the creation of his own tragic figures. ComparisonRead More Virginia Woolfs Narrative Technique in A Room of Ones Own Essay3133 Words   |  13 Pages   Like most uneducated Englishwomen, I like reading. Can these words really belong to Virginia Woolf, an uneducated Englishwoman who knew half a dozen languages, who authored a shelfs length of novels and essays, who possessed one of the most rarified literary minds of the twentieth century? Tucked into the back pages of A Room of Ones Own, this comment shimmers with Woolfs typically wry and understated sense of humor. She jests, but she means something very serious at the same time:

Company Assessment Free Essays

We have examined the characteristics of the organization of graduates, retention rate, and persistence that will help students graduate and pursue employment in their field. We evaluated each students program from Associates, Bachelors, Masters, and Doctoral programs at Argosy university. The most significant cause of fault is the students first semester. We will write a custom essay sample on Company Assessment or any similar topic only for you Order Now As a result, if a student can make it pass their first semester, then the chances of them continuing In the program Increases dramatically. The research shows that the over the last two years student enrollment has dropped. As University we want to encourage students to graduate from our school with their diploma and have them employed with in the first year of earning their degree. The report states that people are unaware of the university and we want to Increase the amount of awareness about the school. Numbers are on the rise but it is not the numbers that we want to be. Consumer knowledge needs to be increased about the University and establish a reputable reputation. Argosy University latest decision was put forth by the Research and Development department. They evaluated the report to focus on target marketing of highly populated areas. This report assesses the challenge to bring in new students and increase the awareness of the university. The new direction of the University over the years to come is to increase the amount of student body and graduates. Interviewer – Interviewee – Value of a Team Environment: Admission Representatives, 2 Academic Counselors, 2 Student Finance Counselors and 1 manager. It is their Job to help enroll each student into class, make sure their Financial Aid is correct, and to make sure that each student is prepared for the first class. The team works well together with communication and helping each other tit information that is needed for the student. Depending on the circumstance of the student it can impact the way the team is operating. For example, a student can be missing information on their Financial Aid, they can be in default, or they might not be in contact with the Admissions Representative. The biggest they lack is new ways to open up the opportunity of the Admissions Representatives. It all starts with the Admissions Representative. If the AR is in a bad mood then he or she could lose the students interest right away. It is important to keep up the motivation of each AR in order to increase enrollment. Because the Admissions Representatives are not allowed to receive compensation for the amount of students they enroll. It is pure determination that allows someone to succeed because there is no reward for the AR. Each person has a different need and it is up to the manager to see what motivates each employee to become successful. According to the article, The Value of Teamwork, by David Tenant, â€Å"The talents that are brought from others in different areas of the company strengthen a team. Plus, by working together to form the team’s objectives, approach, and planning, they will generally become a cohesive unit that an also adapt and change as new challenges become apparent. It is through this mechanism that teams are surpassing individual performance within companies? and companies are taking notice. † Recommendation: It is important that everyone on the team communicates properly. Make sure that everyone is communicating by e-mail or even in the meeting that are set up everyday. Create a checklist that needs to be filled out and initialed by each team member, to make sure that the student is moving through the process efficiently. Have the manager go to each person, individually, and see how the student is moving wrought the process. This will help everyone be into the details and it everyone will be in communication of the process. Job satisfaction of the employees: When it comes to the satisfaction of the employees, there is a stand of 50/50. While the majority of employees love their Job, they sometimes feel overwhelmed, stressed, or even feel overlooked for some of the positions. People want more responsibilities and they want to feel like they are contributing to the team. Some of the employees help out the manager by running morning meetings, setting up charts, and assisting other employees when needed. There has been a resent layoff and some employees are worried about keeping their Jobs. Ryan’s tells his employees to stay focus on the student, what their fears are, get to know them, and see how we can assist the student to get into college. When we focus on the confirmed need of the student, we realize how we better assist them obtain their degree. One of the ways that Ryan makes sure that his employees are happy at work doing something different, employees don’t feel like they are doing the same monotonous routine. So sometimes they will have mini trainings, play games, or a reassert chat. The breakfast chat can be about anything they want. It took a while for the employees to trust Ryan but they started to come around and have been building great relationships with all of his employees. Recommendation: Have a meeting with each employee and ask them what they would like to change. If people are tired of the routine, then have an appreciation day for your employee. How does the company communicate change: In this industry company changes happen all the time. It is sometimes communicated in big group settings, small meetings, e-mails, or in the morning addles. Recently there was a change in structure of the amount of Directors that are in the position. They went from 8 Directors to 4. Even though the change impacted only a certain amount of employees, it however reduced that position by 50%. It required more work by the other Directors but it was a change that needed to eliminate the â€Å"dead weight. † Efforts made to motivate your employees: There are many way s to motivate an employee so that he or she is willing to do their Job. Ryan takes this part of his Job very seriously and he takes great interest in his employees. There are four things Ryan takes to heart as a manager, he takes interest in the future of his employee’s career, in their work-life, listens, and helps them anyway he can. Ryan says, â€Å"In order to have great employees, you need to have a genuine interest in all of your employees. It has worked and it has generated results. † Manager’s who take interest in their employees, generally have people who are not willing to put fourth the extra effort. I believe that when you have a manager, like Ryan, who really cares about you, not Just an employee but as a person, you aspect them more and you are willing â€Å"to go the distance† if they ever need you too. My suggestion for this topic is to talk to your employees. Everyone has a different intrinsic and extrinsic type of motivation. It is up to the manager to seek out each employee and see what his or need may consist of. I think that his falls in line to getting to know your employee. You might find out things you never knew about them, simply by doing a one on one. Assistance offered in helping your employees to deal with stress management: This is a very high pressured Job and sometimes it can get overwhelming. That is why to make sure that you commit yourself to doing a one on one with each employee. If you find yourself in a situation where someone is not reacting well, then you as a manager, need to address that situation. Everyone is different and it is up to you as a manager that you handle the situation properly. One way to get an employee out of the stress is to have them get up and take a walk. This will help them calm down and then get back to the work at hand. Taking walks is a great way to relieve stress. It gives you the opportunity to breathe and focus on what is important. This is why we have breaks in the workplace. Take advantage of your breaks and try not to think of work. This will help you reset and focus on the rest of your day. It is important to know your role as a manager and how to help people succeed. If people are not succeeding then maybe you are not doing your Job as a manager. A great manager knows his or team and they help people who are managers who helped me through the tough times, I work harder for them than anyone else. References: The Value of Teamwork By David Tenant, conference’s. Org/gemmed/ DVTTheValueofTeamwork. PDF How to cite Company Assessment, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The Effects of Stress, Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Gender, Coping St Essay Example For Students

The Effects of Stress, Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Gender, Coping St Essay yles, andFamily Alcoholism on Alcohol ConsumptionThe Effects of Stress, Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Gender, Coping Styles, andFamily Alcoholism on Alcohol ConsumptionResearch Proposal byJosh Robbins100-928-594November 26, 1996Economics 143AbstractOne large component of American popular culture today is alcohol. Acommon stereotype for the effects of alcohol is that as a drug it acts as astress antagonist. This theory was introduced by Conger (1956) as the TensionReduction Hypothesis (TRW). It states that alcohols sedative action on thecentral nervous system serves to reduce tension, and because tension reductionis reinforcing, people drink to escape it (Marlatt ; Rehsenow, 1980). Why do wedrink, when do we drink, and how much do we drink? This research will determinethe correlation between total weekly consumption of alcohol and perceived stress,alcohol outcome expectancies, gender, coping styles, and family history ofalcoholism among undergraduate students. Do people drink more or less whenstressed? Do alcohol outcome expectancies lead to higher or lower consumption?Is a history of family alcoholism positively or negatively correlated topersonal consumption? Do the tested variables play mediating or moderatingroles in stress-related drinking? This research will determine the answers tothese questions, and determine the strength of the correlations, if any. We will write a custom essay on The Effects of Stress, Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Gender, Coping St specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now IntroductionThe main question that this statistical model will answer is as follows:Is there any correlation between drinking and gender, alcohol expectancies,family alcoholism, stress, and coping styles?GenderIt has been demonstrated that significant differences exist between thedrinking patterns of men and women (Hilton, 1988). In a survey of US drinkinghabits conducted in 1988 by the US National Center for Health Statistics, Dawsonand Archer (1992) showed that there are three areas illustrating genderdifferences. The first is the actual number of male and female drinkers. Thestudy showed that 64% of men versus 41% of women were current drinkers. Second,men were more likely to consume alcohol on a daily basis (17.5 grams of ethanolper day versus 8.9 grams for women). Third, men were more likely to beclassified as heavy drinkers. In fact, when the classification measure of aheavy drinker was changed from five drinks or more per day to nine drinks ormore per day the ration of male to female heavy drinkers increased by a factorof 3. StressAre the theories mentioned above about stress-induced drinking accurate?There have been studies which disprove the Tension Reduction Hypothesis. Forinstance, in a study by Conway, Vickers, Ward, and Rahe in 1981 it was foundthat the consumption of alcohol among Navy officers during periods of high jobdemands was actually lower than the consumption during low-demand periods.Additionally, some drinkers have been known to consider alcohol as a tensiongenerator rather than a tension reducer. Alcohol ExpectanciesThe expectations of what effects alcohol consumption may have play animportant role in drinking habits. These expectancies first develop inchildhood as indirect learning experiences (media, family modeling, peerinfluence) and, as a result of increased direct experiences with thepharmacological effects of alcohol, become more refined (Christiansen, Goldman,; Inn, 1982). Do the expectancies that people hold about alcohol decentlypredict consumption? Some people believe that alcohol consumption will increasesexual and aggressive behavior, or otherwise enhance social experiences. Manypeople subscribe to the view that alcohol acts as liquid courage. DataThe dependent variable for this research will be Weekly AlcoholConsumption (WEEK), measured by the total number of drinks consumed in 1 week. A standard drink is defined as a 12-ounce bottle/can of beer, 1.5 ounce shot ofliquor, or a 5 ounce glass of wine. The predictor variables would include thedummy variable GENDER, where D1=1 for a male, STRESS, alcoholic expectancies(EXPECT), family alcoholism (FAMILY), and difference coping styles (COPE). .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 , .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .postImageUrl , .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 , .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84:hover , .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84:visited , .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84:active { border:0!important; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84:active , .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Tourette Syndrome EssayThe complete list of possible measurable variables are: PerceivedStress, Family History of Alcoholism, Problem-Focused Coping, Emotion-FocusedCoping, Less Useful Coping, and Drinking to Cope. For alcohol expectancyoutcomes, the following variables would be useful: Sociability, TensionReduction, Liquid Courage, Sexuality, Cognitive ; Behavioral Impairment, Risk ;Aggression, and Self Perception. The data for this research project will becollected through surveys and questionnaires given to undergraduate students atone university, but not limited to one department. An attempt should be made tosplit the test group approximately equal in terms of sex. Sin ce race/ethnicityand age are not being tested, they are irrelevant for this study. Compensationmay be necessary (possibly a beer), as college students time is quite valuable,and the questionnaire may take approximately 30 minutes. There are a number oftests which currently exist which may be used to evaluate the subjects. 1. Adapted Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (Adapted SMAST)This is a 13 item self-report questionnaire developed by Sher andDescutner in 1986 which is designed to measure family history of alcoholism. This is a yes/no type of test, and is specifically determines the extent of anindividuals parents alcohol abuse. 2. Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol (CEOA)The CEOA (Fromme, Stroot Kaplan, 1993) has 38 questions, and isdesigned to measure alcohol outcome expectancies. There are seven expectancyscales, four positive (sociability, tension-reduction, liquid-courage, andsexuality) and three negative (cognitive-behavioral impairment, risk andaggression, and self perception). The answers are based on a five point scalewith 1 = disagree and 5 = agree. 3. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)The PSS (Cohen, Kamarck, Mermelstein, 1983) is a 14 item self-reportdesigned to assess the degress to which situations in ones life are appraisedas stressful. There are 7 positive and 7 negative questions. 4. COPEThe COPE (Carver et al., 1989) has 53 questions and is designed toassess individual coping dispositions. This test is quite complicated, as it ismade up of 14 scales which are categorized into 3 coping styles: Problem-FocusedCoping, Emotion-Focused Coping, and Less than Useful Coping (Denial, BehavioralDisengagement, and Mental Disengagement). The main result we will be looking atis a section called Drinking to Cope. This will help us find out whetherpeople drink to cope and if so, in what situations. SpecificationThe regression equation for this research will be as follows: WEEKi = b0+ b1(GENDER)i + b2(STRESS)i + b3(EXPECT)i + b4(FAMILY)i + b5(COPE)iThe expected signs of the coefficients are as follows:b1: This is a dummy variable, with only 2 possible values, 0=female and1=male;b2: Positive. Increased stress leads to increased drinking;b3: Both. It will probably be positive with expectancy variables likeTension Reduction, liquid-Courage and Sexuality, while negative with BehavioralImpairment, Risk ; Aggression, and Self Perception;b4: Positive. One would expect an alcoholic family would increase thelikelihood of an alcoholic child;b5: Positive. If we restrict this variable to Drinking To Cope, itshould be positive. I would plan to run a regression using one predictor variable at a time,and then adding an additional variable until many possibilities have beenregressed, determining the correlation between the different predictors. Thiswill determine as well which predictors account for what percentage of thevariability. Anticipated BenefitsAfter determination of the correlation between weekly drinking and the 5predictor variable discussed herein, we will be able to focus on which variableshave more effect, or higher correlation. If the highest correlation is found inthe FAMILY variable, we will know to spend more time and money on programs whichpromote Family Values. If high correlation is found with the STRESS variable,we can direct our energies to making college less stressful. This researchshould be used as a signal for what needs to be done in the future. .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 , .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .postImageUrl , .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 , .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025:hover , .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025:visited , .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025:active { border:0!important; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025:active , .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Things Fall Apart Essay ThesisReferencesCarver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., ; Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing copingstrategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and SocialPsychology, 56, 267-283. Christiansen, B. A., Goldman, M. S., ; Inn, A. (1982). Development of alcohol-related expectancies in adolescents: Separatingpharmacological from social-learning influences. Journal of Consulting andClinical Psychology, 50, 336-344. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., ; Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and SocialBehavior, 24, 385-396. Conger, J. J. (1956). Alcoholism: Theory, problem andchallenge. II. Reinforcement theory and the dynamics of alcoholism. QuarterlyJournal of Studies on Alcohol, 13, 296-305. Conway, T. L., Vickers, R. R., Ward,H. W., ; Rahe, R. H. (1981). Occupational stress and variation in cigarette,coffee, and alcohol consumption. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22,155-165. Dawson, D. A., ; Archer, L. (1992). Gender differences in alcoholconsumption: Effects of measurement. British Journal of Addiction, 87, 119-123. Hilton, M. E. (1988). Trends in US drinking patterns: Further evidence fromthe past 20 years. British Journal of Addiction, 83, 269-278. Marlatt, G. A, ;Rohsenow, D. J. (1980). Cognitive processes in alcohol use: Expectancy and thebalanced placebo design. In N. K. Mello (Ed.). Advances in Substance Abuse:Behavioral and biological research, Vol. 1. Greenwich: JAI Press. Sher, K. J.,; Descutner, C. (1986). Reports of paternal alcoholism: Reliability acrosssiblings. Journal of Addictive Behaviors, 11, 25-30.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Checks Balances Within The US Government

Checks Balances Within The US Government Free Online Research Papers What is a check? What is a balance? What is being checked or balanced? Why exactly would we need something to be checked or balanced? â€Å"Checks and Balances† is a metaphor borrowed from Clockwork (Bailyn 274). In the past days, John Harrington had compared the principle of rotation to the working of a screw or a vice (Harrington 249). From there this political metaphor gained momentum and eventually popularity owing to the endeavours of the likes of Baron de Montesquieu. The constitution of the United States is a paradigmatic example of this. This constitution is a brainchild and consequence of many events that preceded it. It strived to cater for various goals of the founding fathers, of which a fundamental one was to balance the effects of power and preclude tyranny. Consequently, federalism was applied in order to balance the national and state governments and therefore ebb the extents of power in hands of the national government. Thomas Jefferson and other founders were convinced that government at the state level was more democratic by virtue of being closer to the general people, and thus federalism came forth. Another system was, of course, the system of checks and balances. It was envisaged that this system would prevent any one branch of government exceeding its powers and therefore prevent dictatorship. After escaping from British rule, the last thing the founding fathers wanted to have was one such system in their own country. This system divided the government into three branches (executive, legislative, and judicial) with all branches stipulated certain independent and overlapping powers. I n a nutshell, legislative branch makes the laws, the executive branch implements it, while the judicial branch interprets it. Checks and balances is essentially a system designed to prevent a particular branch of the government gaining too much power over another. It ensures a systemic balance in the government structure. The executive branch includes the President and his federal bureaucracy, who have powers over the legislature (Senate and the House of Representatives). The president’s biggest power over the legislature is the power to veto. For example, President Johnson vetoed bills brought by the Congress over 20 times after the Civil War. As for the judicial branch, Supreme Court judges are appointed on a lifetime basis, but they are not above impeachment. Similarly, the President can not appoint judges without the senate’s approval. The President and Congress may agree upon a law, but the Supreme Court can declare that law unconstitutional. Checks and balances have obviously practical implications in the lives of Americans. At the executive branch, the presidential powers include the ability to approve or veto bills (except for pocket veto), carrying out federal laws, endorsing and signing treaties, granting general pardons to federal offenders, appointing judges and high ranking federal officials, acting as the commander in chief of the armed forces. He can also refuse to spend money allocated for specific purposes. As a commander in chief of the armed forces he can also wage war. Interestingly, the pardons signed by the President are not subject to the approval of any other branch of the government or even the recipient. The checks on the President’s executive powers include the power of congress to override any veto by a two-third majority vote, refusal to confirm appointments or ratify treaties, etc. Furthermore, Congress can impeach or remove a President and declare a war. The legislative powers of the congr ess include passing federal laws and establishing lower federal courts and the number of federal judges. It also enacts taxes, authorizes borrowing and setting of budget, reserves the sole power to declare a legal war, authorize investigation against the President or high ranking federal officials, and ratifies treaties. The checks on Congress’ powers include the president’s power to veto a federal bill, and Supreme Court’s ability to render a law unconstitutional. Furthermore, within the legislative branch, both houses of Congress must vote successfully for a law to pass. As for the judicial branch, it is designed to interpret and apply laws by trying federal cases. It also determines which laws apply to which case, has the sole power to nullify laws that conflict with a more important law, or constitution, determines the disposition of prisoners, has power to compel testimony and production of evidence. A unique quality of the judicial branch is that it police s its own members and is traditionally immune to arbitrary dismissal by other branches of the government. Also, it can declare laws and policies passed by Congress and executive acts (presidential) unconstitutional. Numerous real life conflicts have put this system to test over the past couple of centuries. President Woodrow Wilson diligently worked on a peace treaty named the Treaty of Versailles that would have ended the first World War. In 1918, however, Congress refused to ratify it. In 1987 President Reagan appointed Judge Robert Bork to the Supreme Court. In the end, this nomination was refused. After the end of Civil War, Congress overrode more than 20 vetoes by the Presidents. In 1935 and 1936 two Roosevelt programs named NIRA and AAA were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. Whether or not this system of checks and balances stands as important as it was at the beginning of â€Å"American Experiment† begs a closer scrutiny of its benefits and demerits. A strong argument in favour of checks and balances is that it has been functional for over 200 years and shows no imminent signs of failure – the longest for any current constitution in the world. President Nixon’s resignation over Watergate scandal and Bill Clinton’s infamous impeachment trial over the affair with Monica Lewinsky are proofs that the system still ably guards the United States from tyrannical administrations, widespread corruption and scandalous cover-ups. Also, the constitution is extremely difficult to amend as backed up by the fact that the last amendment was done in 1992. This means protective measures can’t be easily amended from the constitution, which ensures the constitution to remain a workable solution for the future. Another great benefit of this system is its enthusiastic promotion of bipartisanship. The two major parties Republicans and Democrats ought to work together to make the government more efficient and legislation easier. Without this cohesiveness at the party level it would be highly difficult for the executive branch to pass any law, which would create a political gridlock. For example, George W Bush reaped the benefit of bipartisanship to get education reform bills passed in 2001-2002. Bill Clinton, on the other hand, found his healthcare reform bill defeated as he ignored the input of the Republicans on the issue during his tenure. A major argument against checks and balances is the idealistic and somewhat naive expectations behind it, which actively depends on the assumption that fair bipartisanship will exist and ignores the contradiction of interests between different branches. Many of these contradictions shouldn’t have been allowed under any political system – especially this one – considering it was specifically devised to prevent it. For instance, the Korea, Vietnam, and Iraq wars have underscored the ability of executive branch to grossly circumvent the system altogether. None of these wars passed any form of approval from the Congress, which generally issues a declaration of war first. Furthermore, this system sometimes encourages a deadlock rather than preventing it. For example, Bill Clinton faced a major crisis with passage of his federal budget in 1995. Legislative and executive branches comprised of opposing parties, and this coupled with the lack of bipartisanship resulted in closing down of the government once money ran out. Thankfully for Clinton, he was able to manoeuvre through the gridlock and eventually got the budget passed. Again, with Clinton, in 1997 and early 1998 the Senate refused to take any action on many of Clinton’s appointments of new federal court nominees. This is known as a major check on presidential authority. This dispute between Clinton and the Senate meant that there weren’t enough federal judges to handle the workload in federal courts for a considerable period of time. This is a sterling example that two branches of the government working together doesn’t necessarily translate to administrative efficacy, and it is naive to expect both parties to play fair – especially on the event of a major election. On the surface, these examples highlight the necessity of a more robust system to counter the possibility of legislative versus executive impasse. During the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, English author Walter Bagehot said, â€Å"The English Constitution, in a word, is framed on the principle of choosing a single sovereign authority, and making it good: the American, upon the principle of having many sovereign authorities, and hoping that the multitude may atone for their inferiority. (Bagehot 293). To combat these drawbacks many political scientists have suggested the introduction of a parliamentary system. Former President Woodrow Wilson was an avid advocate of one such system as he agrees with the spirit of Bagehot’s stance: â€Å"It is not necessary to assent to Mr. Bagehot’s strictures; but it is not possible to deny the clear-sighted justice of this criticism. In order to be fair to the memory of our great constitution-makers, however, it is necessary to remember that when they sat in convention in Philadelphia the English Constitution, which they copied, was not the simple system which was before Mr. Bagehot’s eyes when he wrote.† (Wilson 164) These demerits aside, there is a debate on the extent of power the different branches inherit. Traditionally the judicial branch is considered the weakest and executive the most powerful. While the Constitution does not explicitly declare any branch of the government to be more powerful than another, in practice a branch’s power to defend itself from influence of another is understandably scoped. James Madison illustrates this point in Federalist 51: â€Å"It is not possible to give to each department an equal power of self-defense. In republican government, the legislative authority necessarily predominates.† Additionally, this concept of checks and balances is seen by some as a prominent beacon of American exceptionalism. In fairness, the system of checks and balances is one that has been implemented for over 200 years, and was formulated by a group of politicians who had little idea of what the union would turn into after such a lengthy period of time. Despite that, one must consider the fact that all the branches of the government are readily restricted by the Constitution and the checks and balances implemented from within. No tyranny or dictatorship is yet to sprout off this system till this date, and that is a testament to the effectiveness of this concept. The infrequent lapses and impasses are natural of any such political system and should not be hold against the practical success of this system. Therefore the system of checks and balances does truly pass the test of time and till this date remains as important in maintaining the harmony of different government branches as it did at the advent of the â€Å"American Experiment†, and as such no wholesale constitutional reform is required in foreseeable future. Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967), p. 274. Harrington, Political Works, 249. Baron de Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 18 July 2003. Stanford University. 30 August 2007. Checks and balances in the government of the United States of America, 31 August 2007 Emory Law School: Historical Documents – Constitution of the United States, 30 August 2007 <> 34. The Bork Nomination, 30 August 2007 Minority Presidents and Democratic Performance in Latin American Politics and Society, 28 August 2007 Walter Bagehot, Eng|lish| Const|ituition|. P. 293 Walter Bagehot, Eng|lish| Const|ituition|. P. 296 Woodrow Wilson: The Essential Political Writings, Edited by Ronald J. Pestritto, P. 164 James Madison: The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances between Different Departments, The Federalist # 51, Indepdendent Journal, Wednesday, February 6, 1788 Rick Tilman. Thorstein Veblens Views on American Exceptionalism: An Interpretation. Journal of Economic Issues. 39#1 2005. Voss, Kim. The Making of American Exceptionalism: The Knights of Labor and Class Formation in the Nineteenth Century(1993) Checks and Balances – MSN Encarta, November 01 2007, <> Research Papers on Checks & Balances Within The US GovernmentPETSTEL analysis of IndiaAppeasement Policy Towards the Outbreak of World War 2Never Been Kicked Out of a Place This NiceQuebec and CanadaBringing Democracy to AfricaAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 Europe19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into Asia

Monday, March 2, 2020

How Making My Book Available in Print Landed It In The Guardian

How Making My Book Available in Print Landed It In The Guardian How Making My Book Available in Print Landed It In "The Guardian" When Katja Meier set out to write  about the joys and challenges she encountered when running a refugee home in Tuscany, she had only planned to publish an ebook. Little did she know, her memoir had other (bigger) plans, that hinged on being available in print as well. This is how she found herself desperately searching for a typesetting solution in the middle of the night, with a launch date looming... Saved by the Reedsy Book EditorI discovered the Reedsy Book Editor late one night when desperately raking the internet for a solution to my haphazard typesetting attempt. I signed up for a free account immediately, started to upload the 23 chapters of my manuscript at midnight, and by 2 AM, I downloaded the print-ready PDF.It looked great but had one issue I couldn’t sort out myself: Across the Big Blue Sea includes an excerpt of a research article which focuses on little-known facts linked to human trafficking in Europe. I had the author’s permission to include the text but only if it was formatted differently from the rest of the book. Since the excerpt is several pages long, simply putting it in cursive wouldn’t do.I sent Reedsy an email at 3 AM, trying hard to come across as a calm, seasoned professional (and not as the freaked-out, first-time author who had set herself the wrong launch date). In the morning, I woke up to a message from Matt Cobb (Reedsy co-f ounder and designer), who promised to investigate the issue. And that very same week, I received a new version of my manuscript with the excerpt beautifully set apart in a sans-serif font and the comforting knowledge that I’d be able to make my launch date.From self-published memoir to Guardian â€Å"best summer book†Some things you can plan, others you can’t. I had sent an email to The Guardian’s book-reviewing team a couple of months before the book was published. Not surprisingly, especially for an indie author, I never heard back.Luckily, a few months earlier I had taken marketing advice from Jesse Finkelstein of and written to some of my favorite authors asking for endorsements. This is not an easy thing to do - it takes courage to ask time from authors who are probably already flooded with similar requests. But it's well worth asking, especially if you feel the author might be truly interested in the topic of your book.By seem ing-providence, at the same time that The Guardian wasn’t getting back to me, one of the writers I had contacted for endorsements wrote back and said she’d be happy to receive a copy (and four more followed suit!). Taiye Selasi, author of the wonderful Ghana Must Go, didn’t just write an insightful endorsement for me to use, she also remembered Across the Big Blue Sea when The Guardian asked her for her favorite books of the summer. And unknown to me, Taiye had already mentioned my book a few months before in The Guardian’s â€Å"Books That Made Me† series.I got lucky twice, and I’m afraid I’ll have to contradict Louis Pasteur’s famous quote here: it turns out that chance doesn’t just favor the prepared mind, it also favors the well-prepared book and the courageous author. (Hell, it takes guts to contact your favorite writers for endorsements)!Print is far from deadFrom the day the book was first published in February 20 17, I have been selling more print books than ebooks. I wouldn’t want to miss out on the ebook version - after all, I care about people who live in forlorn places without a reliable postal service. But my sales would look dire if it wasn’t for the print edition. Whatever retailer I look at, the paperback fares better.And when I meet the American students whose universities use Across the Big Blue Sea as a textbook for their study abroad programs in Italy, I’m each time surprised and honored anew that they travel with a print copy in their backpacks.Back to the Reedsy Book Editor once moreWith Italian and German translations in the pipeline, I’ll be back for a few night-time dates with the Reedsy Book Editor early next year (beware Matt, more desperate 3 AM emails coming your way). But being able to easily update my book proved useful and necessary for the already-published English edition too. I already updated the manuscript once to add two pages of end orsements at the beginning of the book. And while we’re working on the film adaptation of Across the Big Blue Sea, I’m planning to keep readers jour of the progress there too.But being able to amend the manuscript doesn’t just mean I can shamelessly brag about film rights and cool reviews in The Guardian: more importantly, I can update the information on how to support the migrant women mentioned in my book. And that is, after all, why I sat down to write it in the first place.How has publishing print copies of your book affected your publishing experience? Leave any thoughts or questions for Katja in the comments below!

Friday, February 14, 2020

Afro-Latin-Anerican Political Leaders Research Paper

Afro-Latin-Anerican Political Leaders - Research Paper Example Political modernity entails the aspirations to a better future as well as ideals for political and legal equality. To this end, Afro Latin American leaders are well remembered for their fight for racial equality, lack of government attention to their problem, predominant poverty and hardship. Evidently, the Latin American slavery is believed to have lasted longer and exhibited much more intensity than the United States. To this end, the early 15th century was synonymous with the enslavement of the Blacks by the Spaniards and Portuguese. This occurred even before the Columbus expeditions. The 1880’s marked the end of slavery in Latin American following abolishment by Brazil and Cuba2. There exists much less attention accorded to Afro-Latin American after the end of the colonial era. This has largely been due to the failure of recognition or identity crisis. Furthermore, more attention has normally been focused on Afro-American leaders in the fight of equality as compared to the ir Afro-Latin American counterparts. It is of interest to note that there have been national political leaders of African descent in a majority of Latin American countries. This has been evident in the early part of the twentieth century as well as late nineteenth century. Moreover, such Afro-Latin American leadership has been evident despite of the existence of strong racial discrimination.. However, a number of Latin American countries have been preoccupied with historical motives of curbing the political power among the huge segment of poor and working class people. Evidently, literacy requirements for voting were maintained by a majority of the Latin American governments after independence ... Afro Latin American Participation in Political Leadership Over a period of 30 year, Afro-Latin Americans have attained considerable gains in political organization, social movement activism, and mobilization. To this end, Afro-Latin American political leader and civil rights groups have been at the forefront in agitating against discrimination, racial prejudice and other forms of inequality. This was a stark contrast to the early 1970’s in which there was very minimal political activity by black groups4. Evidently, many Afro-Latin Americans were being oppressed in authoritative regimes from 1960’s to 1980’s. Presently, the existence of political-social movements that brought together Afro-Latin Americans have been in existence in every sub region of America such as Southern Cone, Central America, Caribbean, Andean and every other Latin American country. These movements have garnered political success in agitating for better economic and educational opportunities, racial equality and denouncing racism. The Afro-Latin political leadership within the black movements has taken a step further in addressing their concerns through churches, community, associations, labor unions, political parties, civic organizations and other social movements5. Furthermore, they have been successful in lobbying governments for public policy, resources and specific legislation at the local, state, national and international levels. To this end, Afro-descendants have gained more visibility, respect and acknowledgement in Latin America. However, the Afro-Latin American political groups are not properly structured or organized. To this end, some of them exhibit disconnect and insufficient synergy among members and leaders; the wider black communities and the