Monday, August 24, 2020

Educational differences in public institutes and in private institute Literature review

Instructive contrasts in broad daylight organizations and in private establishment - Literature audit Example Hein (2004) noticed that at the commencement of the instruction framework all foundations were open establishments and there was just an alternative of private educational cost for intrigued understudies, which was offered to them as medicinal classes. Be that as it may, because of sharp analysis for the most part just the nature of open establishment training there was rise of private organizations, which avoided some State guidelines yet suffered for quality instruction for its understudies (Heller, 2001). Especially in the United Kingdom, private organizations were first settled in the nineteenth century by the Roman Catholic area as a counter assault to the supposed strength of protestant strict thoughts and government officials in the open establishment framework. It is because of this reality that most private establishments in the UK are Catholic possessed (Wilson, 2013). Over the ongoing past, the quantities of private foundations both auxiliary and tertiary have strongly expanded and this is credited to the expanded advantages that private organizations offer when contrasted with open establishments. This proposition proclamation for this writing audit runs on the assessment that private foundations have advanced education norms when contrasted with open establishments; also, the instructive educational plan of private organizations is a lot more extensive contrasted with open organizations. Thirdly, private organizations are likewise blessed by the gods with predominant offices dissimilar to open establishments and in conclusion, private foundations have low understudy educator proportion when contrasted with open foundations (Lance, 2010). As indicated by the figures from the United Kingdom’s Department of Education, they show that for the most part, private foundations perform superior to open organizations, and this reality is validated by better in national/basic tests, whereby understudies from private establishments overwhelm the top spots. This affirms private foundations offer advanced education norms when contrasted with

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Econometrics Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Econometrics - Assignment Example For RM (normal number of rooms in the proprietor involved lodging in the statistics tract), in the main variation, a 1 percent change in RM causes 0.329 % change in MV (the middle lodging cost). In the subsequent variation, a 1 percent change in RM causes a 0.0306 % change in the middle lodging value (MV). In the end, a 1 percent changes in RM causes a 0.294 % change in the middle lodging cost in the third variation. In the subsequent variable, the weighted separation to five significant work places in the Boston locale (DIS), the request for coefficients; 0.028, 0.027, and 0.027 in total qualities. In the measures of absolutism, a one percent change in DIS causes a decrease of middle lodging cost by 0.028 in the principal variation, a decrease of 0.027 in the subsequent variation, and a decrease of 0.027 in the third variation. In the third factor, nitrogen oxide fixations in parts per hundred million (NOX), the coefficients are 1.479 and 1.529 in the second and third variations separately. These figures propose that 1 percent change in nitrogen oxide fixation builds the medium lodging cost by 1.479 in the subsequent variation and by 1.529 in the third variation. Beta coefficient is the proportion of the affectability of the evaluations in impacting the middle lodging cost. In the evaluations, the beta coefficient is the incline of the model summed up into ÃŽ ²0, ÃŽ ²1, ÃŽ ²4, ÃŽ ²3, and ÃŽ ²2. Typically, the coefficients would infer 1 rate change in the gauge 1 and 2 would cause an expansion of 0.566 and 0.0261. In any case, utilizing the beta methodology, the two coefficients are underneath, proposing that they are beneath the middle lodging cost. 6. Assume in model (3) I included the variable NOX DCHAS, coming about in ln(MVi) = ÃŽ ²0 + ÃŽ ²1RMi + ÃŽ ²2 ln(DISi) +ÃŽ ²3NOXi + ÃŽ ²4DCHAS;i + ÃŽ ²5 NOX DCHAS +æ i . How might the understanding of Æ 3 change in model (3) after the incorporation of this variable? What is the understanding of Æ 5 in this model? 9. Given

Saturday, July 18, 2020

7 Nonfiction Books to Make You Sound Smart at Parties

7 Nonfiction Books to Make You Sound Smart at Parties Its the holiday season, which for some, means lots of extra social engagements. Whether you need to impress your new significant others parents, bond with your great aunt with the hopes shell include you in her will, or find some common ground with your teenage cousin, these recent nonfiction books will give you fodder for conversation and help make you sound smart at parties. Or you know, theyre interesting nonfiction books to read at home while you avoid going to parties. Either way. Nothing is more impressive than being able to talk about science that wasnt explained in The Martian. Read the slim book Seven  Brief Lessons on Physics by  Carlo Rovelli  and youll be the resident expert. Not only will you get the science, youll have the passion and the nuance to speak authoritatively on physics without boring everyone to death. So youve already got your holiday menu planned out and your brother announces his girlfriend is paleo. Instead of reading annoying blogs, check out How to Eat Paleo (When You Dont Live in a Cave) by  Cynthia Flick Spivey, illustrated by  Joya Rose Groves. Its a no-nonsense approach to what a paleo diet is all about with beautiful, whimsical illustrations. I was always rolling my eyes at any mention of a paleo diet until I read this slim book that makes it sound more like a lifestyle than a fad diet. Music is a safe topic with everyone from your heavy metal loving, motorcycle driving co-worker to your jazz enthusiast uncle. Sound like an intelligent and informed music critic who can discuss every genre after reading  Every Song Ever: Twenty Ways to Listen in an Age of Musical Plenty by Ben Ratliff. Itll change how you listen toâ€"and talk aboutâ€"music. Your aunt just cant understand why your teenage cousins are always on their phones. Give her a lowdown on what her daughters are up to after reading American Girls: Social Media and the Secret Lives of Teenagers by Nancy Jo Sales. This well-researched examination of how teens use social media is eye-opening without being overly alarmist. Do you sit through family holiday gatherings watching football and wonder what it the hell is going on, or are you a diehard fan that sets up multiple TVs so you can watch more than one game at a time? Either way, the  The Perfect Pass: American Genius and the Reinvention of Football by S.C. Gwynne is an interesting read on how two coaches revolutionized the game by developing modern playbooks. Its been easy to lose hope this year, but the collection of essays in We Gon  Be Alright: Notes on Race and Resegregation by Jeff Chang can reaffirm your believe in the potential for real, meaningful cultural change. Youll feel better about any conversations where race comes up after reading this book. Your grandpa might think the internet is the worst thing to happen to world, but after reading Magic and Loss: The Internet as Art by Virginia Heffernan, youll have plenty of anecdotes to convince him there is beauty in the internet. What interesting nonfiction books have given you conversation rule? What books are more fun  than going to a cocktail party?   Sign up for True Story to receive nonfiction news, new releases, and must-read forthcoming titles. Thank you for signing up! Keep an eye on your inbox.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Great Depression Of America - 980 Words

America has been around for many years and during those years people of America have experienced horrible times and fantastic times. There were the world wars, and there were the roaring twenties when America was the fastest growing. After the roaring twenties the American economy took a turn for the worse. After such a prosperous decade, when America went into the depression people were not ready for such a drastic change. Many people didn’t understand how it occurred, but now we have a better understanding of what happened. Imagine coming off of the highest times in life; Broadway shows every night, everyone dressed up in suits and dresses, everything going great and within a day all of that changes for the worst. One October day the stock market crashed which sent the American economy into turmoil. In fact, it was one of the major causes that led to the Great Depression. Two months after the original crash in October, stockholders had lost more than $40 billion dollars. Eve n though the stock market began to regain some of its losses, by the end of 1930, it just was not enough and America truly entered what is called the Great Depression (Kelly. M). After the crash the American economy was trying to climb back up to what it had once been, but it couldn’t because of the hardships it had endured. People often put all the blame on the president that was in office when the great depression occurred. President Hoover has become somewhat notorious for trying too hard to stopShow MoreRelatedThe Great Depression Of America920 Words   |  4 PagesThe Great Depression A major event in American history that has shaped society today is the great depression that began in 1929 and ended in 1939. The official day the stock market crashed was a a day known as â€Å"black Tuesday†. At the time, the American government was not prepared nor did they have policies in place that made them well prepared for such an event to take place. This unfortunate event threw Americans into a an economic crisis unlike any event experienced before in history and leftRead MoreThe Great Depression Of America1727 Words   |  7 PagesThe Great Depression in America is often believed to have ended when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbour and the US entered WWII in December 1941. However, while an exact end date is a matter of debate, it’s obvious the end of the Great Depression correlates somewhat with the beginning of the war, leading many to believe WWII must have ended the Great Depression and triggered the economic recovery of the United States. Many histo rians believe that the government and military spending restimulatedRead MoreAmerica in the Great Depression1370 Words   |  5 Pagesdecade, from 1929 to 1940, America’s economy failed to operate at a level that allowed most Americans to attain economic success. A worldwide depression struck countries with market economies at the end of the 1920s. Although the Great Depression was relatively mild in some countries, it was severe in others, especially in the United States. The Great Depression left the American economy in ruins with problems that would take decades to fix. Government involvement increased in an effort to reconstructRead MoreThe Great Depression Of America3487 Words   |  14 Pages The Great Depression If one asks most Americans their opinion about when our nations’ economy crashed the most severely, they would most likely say the period between October 1929, until 1930 when the United States went through the great depression. The great depression was a time where people lost nearly everything, from houses and farms, to families and children. People were starving and left out in the cold. The worst part about this was that once people lost their belongings, they were goneRead MoreThe Great Depression of America514 Words   |  2 Pagesmill in Gary several other factories and companies started to travel to Gary for products because it became a business that lasted for decades. There was great memories in the 1920s with the great depression that had eventually changed in the 1930s. There were a crash of the stock market that was drawn in 1929 with the Great Depression of America. The American had no choice but to share unemployment and poverty. Then there was a decrease in the agriculture market which had a distress effect on theRead MoreThe Great Depression Changed America845 Words   |  4 PagesEssay The Great Depression changed our whole society but not in a bad way. The drop of the stock market gave buyers two choices; work harder to earn their money back or give up. After families lost most of their money they gave up and couldn’t provide for themselves. The Great Depression has majorly affected our current world. The Great Depression had shown how big companies affected America, how much the Executive branches power had grown and how the bank could not always be trusted. The Great DepressionRead MoreThe Great Depression Trademarks America1544 Words   |  7 Pages The Great Depression trademarks America at its all-time historical down point. In FDR’s Folly, Powell spotlights the presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, astronomical levels of unemployment, as well as the New Deal program developed to combat the Great Depression. Powell, who was born and educated in London, earned a master’s degree in history and he clearly demonstrates his views to the reader. In his words, FDR’s presidency did not aid the economic state but drove it further back as well asRead MoreThe Great Depression And Its Effects On America2001 Words   |  9 PagesThe Great Depression was an incredibly dull time in the historical backdrop of the United States, impacting all the financial assets of the American lifestyle. The Great Depression shattered the financial status of the United States. President Roosevelt has been known for sparing the U.S out of the financial turmoil it found itself in from the Great Depression. The causative components of t he Great Depression are still up for debate by many students of history and economics. For some individualsRead More The Great Depression in America Essay2388 Words   |  10 Pages nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The Great Depression was a huge economic downfall in North America and involved many other industrialized countries of the world. The Depression began in 1929 and lasted for about ten years. Millions of people lost their jobs along with many businesses going bankrupt. The common misconception of the Great Depression is people think that the stock market crash was the main cause for it. There were many causes for the Depression; unequal distribution of money during theRead MoreEssay on America and the Great Depression1882 Words   |  8 PagesAmerica and the Great Depression 1. Compare the ideas behind the protest movements of Huey Long and Upton Sinclair. The Era of the Great Depression was one of both desperation and hope. Americans were desperate for a change, desperate for anything to come along that may improve their situation, yet hopeful that the light at the end of the tunnel was near. For many of those living in poverty during the 1930s, the â€Å"radical† leftist movements seen throughout the country appeared to be alternatives

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on the Dynamic Relationship of Macbeth and Lady...

Dynamic Relationship of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth An important factor in Shakespeare’s tragic play, Macbeth is the changing relationship between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth throughout the play. At the beginning of the play, Lady Macbeth is the dominant character in the relationship. As the play progresses the roles seem to reverse and Macbeth becomes the more dominant of the two. We can gain insight into the changing relationship by looking at the interaction of the couple. The first time in the play where we can make reference about their relationship and their individual personalities in the relationship is in Act 1, Scene 5, where we first meet Lady Macbeth. She is seen alone reading a letter out loud, which Macbeth has written†¦show more content†¦She is also a bit lazy and wants the power but not if someone can do it for her, and also I think that deep down she doesn’t possess enough evil to kill Duncan herself and can’t physically bring herself to stab him, ‘Had he not resembled My father as he slept, I had done’t.’ Lady Macbeth didn’t give in and ended up convincing Macbeth after a little effort, it didn’t take much convincing because the thoughts were already in his head and she just had to make him overcome his fears that lay in his conscience. Lady Macbeth uses various methods to persuade him. She hits at everything which he cares about. She says he’s a coward and not a real man and this makes him angry as he is a good soldier and has killed many people before. She also says to him, ‘When you durst do it, then you were a man’ this is when she questions his masculinity. She even says that she’d kill their own child. ‘I would, while it was smiling in my face, Have plucked from my nipple from his boneless gums And dashed the brains out, had I so sworn As you have done to this’. This is saying that if she had promised to do something like he did she would have killed their child instead of breaking her promise. I think she said this because she wanted to show him how much she would give up to become queen and how beingShow MoreRelatedMacbeth Comparative Essay1150 Words   |  5 PagesThe Power Couple Macbeth Comparative Essay Word Count: 1147 In Western culture today, it is a widely accepted fact that men and women have equal power in a marriage; whereas in Elizabethan times, a woman was dominated by her husband and she would have very little control over her life. The leading omnipotent couple in William Shakespeare’s Macbeth have a compelling marriage with a power dynamic that is beyond the boundaries set by society at the time in which he wrote the play. The directorsRead More Supernatural in Shakespeares Macbeth - Purpose of the Witches940 Words   |  4 PagesThe Purpose of the Witches in Macbeth  Ã‚      One purpose for having the witches in Shakespeares play,   Macbeth, is to make a comparison between Macbeths conscious world and Macbeths unconscious, dream world. In this essay, I will touch upon Sigmund Freuds theories of dreams and the unconscious, and consider the nature of the witches and their relationship with Macbeth. I will also explore the relationship between witches and society, and conclude the essay by considering other roles of theRead MoreComparison Between Lady Macbeth And The Wife Of Bath1544 Words   |  7 PagesAmbition is a key theme in both William Shakespeare’s Macbeth and Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Wife of Bath. This essay will focus on the contrast in ambitions between Lady Macbeth and The Wife of Bath. I will argue that whereas Lady Macbeth’s uncertain ambition that stems from her preoccupation with her maternal qualities – and her apparent inabilities to bear children, the Wife of Bath is liberated and appears to relish her status as an independent woman unconcerned with child bearing, ‘a mother’s uniqueRead MoreThe Use of Language, Stagecraft and Structure to Illustrate the Demise of Lady Macbeth2484 Words   |  10 Pagesof Lady Macbeth, it is crucial to compare various scenes beginning with Act 1 Scene 5 and ending with Act 5 Scene 1. It is going to examine, using language, stagecraft and structure, how in the beginning of the play Lady Macbeth is manipulative and dominant over Macbeth, but towards the end of the play, the roles have reversed and Lady Macbeth is needed less and less. Towards the closing scenes, Macbeth becomes totally independent in his actions and decisions, in stark contrast, Lady Macbeth becomesRead Moreshakespeare influences16068 Words   |  65 PagesQUESTION 5. SIGNIFICANCE AND RATIONALE 6. ANALYSIS 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. ABSTRACT This thesis analysis the textual and symbolic similarities between Shakespeare s tragedies Macbeth and Hamlet and William Faulkner s the sound and the furry and Absalom, Absalom!. Faulkner absorbed essential characteristics of Shakespearean tragedies and utilized them consciously and unconsciously in the creation of his own tragic figures. ComparisonRead More Virginia Woolfs Narrative Technique in A Room of Ones Own Essay3133 Words   |  13 Pages   Like most uneducated Englishwomen, I like reading. Can these words really belong to Virginia Woolf, an uneducated Englishwoman who knew half a dozen languages, who authored a shelfs length of novels and essays, who possessed one of the most rarified literary minds of the twentieth century? Tucked into the back pages of A Room of Ones Own, this comment shimmers with Woolfs typically wry and understated sense of humor. She jests, but she means something very serious at the same time:

Company Assessment Free Essays

We have examined the characteristics of the organization of graduates, retention rate, and persistence that will help students graduate and pursue employment in their field. We evaluated each students program from Associates, Bachelors, Masters, and Doctoral programs at Argosy university. The most significant cause of fault is the students first semester. We will write a custom essay sample on Company Assessment or any similar topic only for you Order Now As a result, if a student can make it pass their first semester, then the chances of them continuing In the program Increases dramatically. The research shows that the over the last two years student enrollment has dropped. As University we want to encourage students to graduate from our school with their diploma and have them employed with in the first year of earning their degree. The report states that people are unaware of the university and we want to Increase the amount of awareness about the school. Numbers are on the rise but it is not the numbers that we want to be. Consumer knowledge needs to be increased about the University and establish a reputable reputation. Argosy University latest decision was put forth by the Research and Development department. They evaluated the report to focus on target marketing of highly populated areas. This report assesses the challenge to bring in new students and increase the awareness of the university. The new direction of the University over the years to come is to increase the amount of student body and graduates. Interviewer – Interviewee – Value of a Team Environment: Admission Representatives, 2 Academic Counselors, 2 Student Finance Counselors and 1 manager. It is their Job to help enroll each student into class, make sure their Financial Aid is correct, and to make sure that each student is prepared for the first class. The team works well together with communication and helping each other tit information that is needed for the student. Depending on the circumstance of the student it can impact the way the team is operating. For example, a student can be missing information on their Financial Aid, they can be in default, or they might not be in contact with the Admissions Representative. The biggest they lack is new ways to open up the opportunity of the Admissions Representatives. It all starts with the Admissions Representative. If the AR is in a bad mood then he or she could lose the students interest right away. It is important to keep up the motivation of each AR in order to increase enrollment. Because the Admissions Representatives are not allowed to receive compensation for the amount of students they enroll. It is pure determination that allows someone to succeed because there is no reward for the AR. Each person has a different need and it is up to the manager to see what motivates each employee to become successful. According to the article, The Value of Teamwork, by David Tenant, â€Å"The talents that are brought from others in different areas of the company strengthen a team. Plus, by working together to form the team’s objectives, approach, and planning, they will generally become a cohesive unit that an also adapt and change as new challenges become apparent. It is through this mechanism that teams are surpassing individual performance within companies? and companies are taking notice. † Recommendation: It is important that everyone on the team communicates properly. Make sure that everyone is communicating by e-mail or even in the meeting that are set up everyday. Create a checklist that needs to be filled out and initialed by each team member, to make sure that the student is moving through the process efficiently. Have the manager go to each person, individually, and see how the student is moving wrought the process. This will help everyone be into the details and it everyone will be in communication of the process. Job satisfaction of the employees: When it comes to the satisfaction of the employees, there is a stand of 50/50. While the majority of employees love their Job, they sometimes feel overwhelmed, stressed, or even feel overlooked for some of the positions. People want more responsibilities and they want to feel like they are contributing to the team. Some of the employees help out the manager by running morning meetings, setting up charts, and assisting other employees when needed. There has been a resent layoff and some employees are worried about keeping their Jobs. Ryan’s tells his employees to stay focus on the student, what their fears are, get to know them, and see how we can assist the student to get into college. When we focus on the confirmed need of the student, we realize how we better assist them obtain their degree. One of the ways that Ryan makes sure that his employees are happy at work doing something different, employees don’t feel like they are doing the same monotonous routine. So sometimes they will have mini trainings, play games, or a reassert chat. The breakfast chat can be about anything they want. It took a while for the employees to trust Ryan but they started to come around and have been building great relationships with all of his employees. Recommendation: Have a meeting with each employee and ask them what they would like to change. If people are tired of the routine, then have an appreciation day for your employee. How does the company communicate change: In this industry company changes happen all the time. It is sometimes communicated in big group settings, small meetings, e-mails, or in the morning addles. Recently there was a change in structure of the amount of Directors that are in the position. They went from 8 Directors to 4. Even though the change impacted only a certain amount of employees, it however reduced that position by 50%. It required more work by the other Directors but it was a change that needed to eliminate the â€Å"dead weight. † Efforts made to motivate your employees: There are many way s to motivate an employee so that he or she is willing to do their Job. Ryan takes this part of his Job very seriously and he takes great interest in his employees. There are four things Ryan takes to heart as a manager, he takes interest in the future of his employee’s career, in their work-life, listens, and helps them anyway he can. Ryan says, â€Å"In order to have great employees, you need to have a genuine interest in all of your employees. It has worked and it has generated results. † Manager’s who take interest in their employees, generally have people who are not willing to put fourth the extra effort. I believe that when you have a manager, like Ryan, who really cares about you, not Just an employee but as a person, you aspect them more and you are willing â€Å"to go the distance† if they ever need you too. My suggestion for this topic is to talk to your employees. Everyone has a different intrinsic and extrinsic type of motivation. It is up to the manager to seek out each employee and see what his or need may consist of. I think that his falls in line to getting to know your employee. You might find out things you never knew about them, simply by doing a one on one. Assistance offered in helping your employees to deal with stress management: This is a very high pressured Job and sometimes it can get overwhelming. That is why to make sure that you commit yourself to doing a one on one with each employee. If you find yourself in a situation where someone is not reacting well, then you as a manager, need to address that situation. Everyone is different and it is up to you as a manager that you handle the situation properly. One way to get an employee out of the stress is to have them get up and take a walk. This will help them calm down and then get back to the work at hand. Taking walks is a great way to relieve stress. It gives you the opportunity to breathe and focus on what is important. This is why we have breaks in the workplace. Take advantage of your breaks and try not to think of work. This will help you reset and focus on the rest of your day. It is important to know your role as a manager and how to help people succeed. If people are not succeeding then maybe you are not doing your Job as a manager. A great manager knows his or team and they help people who are managers who helped me through the tough times, I work harder for them than anyone else. References: The Value of Teamwork By David Tenant, conference’s. Org/gemmed/ DVTTheValueofTeamwork. PDF How to cite Company Assessment, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The Effects of Stress, Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Gender, Coping St Essay Example For Students

The Effects of Stress, Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Gender, Coping St Essay yles, andFamily Alcoholism on Alcohol ConsumptionThe Effects of Stress, Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Gender, Coping Styles, andFamily Alcoholism on Alcohol ConsumptionResearch Proposal byJosh Robbins100-928-594November 26, 1996Economics 143AbstractOne large component of American popular culture today is alcohol. Acommon stereotype for the effects of alcohol is that as a drug it acts as astress antagonist. This theory was introduced by Conger (1956) as the TensionReduction Hypothesis (TRW). It states that alcohols sedative action on thecentral nervous system serves to reduce tension, and because tension reductionis reinforcing, people drink to escape it (Marlatt ; Rehsenow, 1980). Why do wedrink, when do we drink, and how much do we drink? This research will determinethe correlation between total weekly consumption of alcohol and perceived stress,alcohol outcome expectancies, gender, coping styles, and family history ofalcoholism among undergraduate students. Do people drink more or less whenstressed? Do alcohol outcome expectancies lead to higher or lower consumption?Is a history of family alcoholism positively or negatively correlated topersonal consumption? Do the tested variables play mediating or moderatingroles in stress-related drinking? This research will determine the answers tothese questions, and determine the strength of the correlations, if any. We will write a custom essay on The Effects of Stress, Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Gender, Coping St specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now IntroductionThe main question that this statistical model will answer is as follows:Is there any correlation between drinking and gender, alcohol expectancies,family alcoholism, stress, and coping styles?GenderIt has been demonstrated that significant differences exist between thedrinking patterns of men and women (Hilton, 1988). In a survey of US drinkinghabits conducted in 1988 by the US National Center for Health Statistics, Dawsonand Archer (1992) showed that there are three areas illustrating genderdifferences. The first is the actual number of male and female drinkers. Thestudy showed that 64% of men versus 41% of women were current drinkers. Second,men were more likely to consume alcohol on a daily basis (17.5 grams of ethanolper day versus 8.9 grams for women). Third, men were more likely to beclassified as heavy drinkers. In fact, when the classification measure of aheavy drinker was changed from five drinks or more per day to nine drinks ormore per day the ration of male to female heavy drinkers increased by a factorof 3. StressAre the theories mentioned above about stress-induced drinking accurate?There have been studies which disprove the Tension Reduction Hypothesis. Forinstance, in a study by Conway, Vickers, Ward, and Rahe in 1981 it was foundthat the consumption of alcohol among Navy officers during periods of high jobdemands was actually lower than the consumption during low-demand periods.Additionally, some drinkers have been known to consider alcohol as a tensiongenerator rather than a tension reducer. Alcohol ExpectanciesThe expectations of what effects alcohol consumption may have play animportant role in drinking habits. These expectancies first develop inchildhood as indirect learning experiences (media, family modeling, peerinfluence) and, as a result of increased direct experiences with thepharmacological effects of alcohol, become more refined (Christiansen, Goldman,; Inn, 1982). Do the expectancies that people hold about alcohol decentlypredict consumption? Some people believe that alcohol consumption will increasesexual and aggressive behavior, or otherwise enhance social experiences. Manypeople subscribe to the view that alcohol acts as liquid courage. DataThe dependent variable for this research will be Weekly AlcoholConsumption (WEEK), measured by the total number of drinks consumed in 1 week. A standard drink is defined as a 12-ounce bottle/can of beer, 1.5 ounce shot ofliquor, or a 5 ounce glass of wine. The predictor variables would include thedummy variable GENDER, where D1=1 for a male, STRESS, alcoholic expectancies(EXPECT), family alcoholism (FAMILY), and difference coping styles (COPE). .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 , .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .postImageUrl , .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 , .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84:hover , .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84:visited , .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84:active { border:0!important; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84:active , .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84 .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u9d9f285fec2d4b47c5ac8263ae75df84:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Tourette Syndrome EssayThe complete list of possible measurable variables are: PerceivedStress, Family History of Alcoholism, Problem-Focused Coping, Emotion-FocusedCoping, Less Useful Coping, and Drinking to Cope. For alcohol expectancyoutcomes, the following variables would be useful: Sociability, TensionReduction, Liquid Courage, Sexuality, Cognitive ; Behavioral Impairment, Risk ;Aggression, and Self Perception. The data for this research project will becollected through surveys and questionnaires given to undergraduate students atone university, but not limited to one department. An attempt should be made tosplit the test group approximately equal in terms of sex. Sin ce race/ethnicityand age are not being tested, they are irrelevant for this study. Compensationmay be necessary (possibly a beer), as college students time is quite valuable,and the questionnaire may take approximately 30 minutes. There are a number oftests which currently exist which may be used to evaluate the subjects. 1. Adapted Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (Adapted SMAST)This is a 13 item self-report questionnaire developed by Sher andDescutner in 1986 which is designed to measure family history of alcoholism. This is a yes/no type of test, and is specifically determines the extent of anindividuals parents alcohol abuse. 2. Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol (CEOA)The CEOA (Fromme, Stroot Kaplan, 1993) has 38 questions, and isdesigned to measure alcohol outcome expectancies. There are seven expectancyscales, four positive (sociability, tension-reduction, liquid-courage, andsexuality) and three negative (cognitive-behavioral impairment, risk andaggression, and self perception). The answers are based on a five point scalewith 1 = disagree and 5 = agree. 3. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)The PSS (Cohen, Kamarck, Mermelstein, 1983) is a 14 item self-reportdesigned to assess the degress to which situations in ones life are appraisedas stressful. There are 7 positive and 7 negative questions. 4. COPEThe COPE (Carver et al., 1989) has 53 questions and is designed toassess individual coping dispositions. This test is quite complicated, as it ismade up of 14 scales which are categorized into 3 coping styles: Problem-FocusedCoping, Emotion-Focused Coping, and Less than Useful Coping (Denial, BehavioralDisengagement, and Mental Disengagement). The main result we will be looking atis a section called Drinking to Cope. This will help us find out whetherpeople drink to cope and if so, in what situations. SpecificationThe regression equation for this research will be as follows: WEEKi = b0+ b1(GENDER)i + b2(STRESS)i + b3(EXPECT)i + b4(FAMILY)i + b5(COPE)iThe expected signs of the coefficients are as follows:b1: This is a dummy variable, with only 2 possible values, 0=female and1=male;b2: Positive. Increased stress leads to increased drinking;b3: Both. It will probably be positive with expectancy variables likeTension Reduction, liquid-Courage and Sexuality, while negative with BehavioralImpairment, Risk ; Aggression, and Self Perception;b4: Positive. One would expect an alcoholic family would increase thelikelihood of an alcoholic child;b5: Positive. If we restrict this variable to Drinking To Cope, itshould be positive. I would plan to run a regression using one predictor variable at a time,and then adding an additional variable until many possibilities have beenregressed, determining the correlation between the different predictors. Thiswill determine as well which predictors account for what percentage of thevariability. Anticipated BenefitsAfter determination of the correlation between weekly drinking and the 5predictor variable discussed herein, we will be able to focus on which variableshave more effect, or higher correlation. If the highest correlation is found inthe FAMILY variable, we will know to spend more time and money on programs whichpromote Family Values. If high correlation is found with the STRESS variable,we can direct our energies to making college less stressful. This researchshould be used as a signal for what needs to be done in the future. .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 , .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .postImageUrl , .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 , .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025:hover , .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025:visited , .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025:active { border:0!important; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025:active , .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025 .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua1990bda5414dcd96262c52dfd94c025:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Things Fall Apart Essay ThesisReferencesCarver, C. 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Gender differences in alcoholconsumption: Effects of measurement. British Journal of Addiction, 87, 119-123. Hilton, M. E. (1988). Trends in US drinking patterns: Further evidence fromthe past 20 years. British Journal of Addiction, 83, 269-278. Marlatt, G. A, ;Rohsenow, D. J. (1980). Cognitive processes in alcohol use: Expectancy and thebalanced placebo design. In N. K. Mello (Ed.). Advances in Substance Abuse:Behavioral and biological research, Vol. 1. Greenwich: JAI Press. Sher, K. J.,; Descutner, C. (1986). Reports of paternal alcoholism: Reliability acrosssiblings. Journal of Addictive Behaviors, 11, 25-30.